Landlocked Developing Countries (LLDCs)
Land-locked developing countries 

Currently, 31 countries belong to the Group of landlocked developing countries (LLDCs): 15 are located in Africa, 12 in Asia, 2 in Latin America and 2 in Central and Eastern Europe.

The lack of territorial access to the sea poses persistent challenges to growth and development of these countries and has been the main factor hindering their ability to better integrate in the global trading system. The transit of export and import goods through the territory of at least one neighboring State and the frequent change of mode of transport result in high transaction costs and reduced international competitiveness.

Responding to the specific problems of LLDCs requires a multidimensional approach to landlockedness as a development challenge. This notably implies the implementation of policies and measures aimed at economic restructuring and specialization in these countries that take into account their transport-related obstacles. The development of productive capacities is a key element of this process.

In this context, UNCTAD supports LLDCs to tackle persisting and emerging challenges by providing advisory services and organizing high-level expert group meetings, among others to address key challenges facing these countries.

Main outputs

  • Preparation of policy-focused studies at the request of LLDCs
  • Supporting LLDCs to attract Foreign Direct Investments (FDI)




04 June 2017Equatorial Guinea is the first country to leave the LDC category since the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals
22 October 2014Productive capacity, diversification needed to boost growth in Landlocked Developing Countries
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17 October 2014Zambian Minister applauds UNCTAD's work in support of Landlocked Developing Countries
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10 February 2013Rwanda Government and UNCTAD launch online investment guide
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12 September 2012LLDCs need to move from being land-locked to become land-linked, says UNCTAD Deputy S-G


 Events and Meetings


 Documents and Publications

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