The Palestine Liberation Organization
Established in 1964, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) consists of three decision-making bodies: the Executive Committee, the Central Council and the larger Palestine Council, with seats shared by the different Palestinian factions, professional unions and independents.
At present, the PLO is a full member of the Asian Group of the United Nations, the Global System of Trade Preferences among Developing Countries, the Group of 77 and China, the League of Arab States, the Non-Aligned Movement, the African Union, the Organization of the Islamic Conference, and the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia. Moreover, Palestine (PLO) has maintained Permanent Observer status with the United Nations and all specialized agencies, in accordance with General Assembly resolutions since 1974.
The Palestinian Authority
Established by the PLO in 1994, the Palestinian Authority is designed as an interim administration to govern parts of the West Bank and Gaza after the Oslo Accords. The Palestinian Authority has some of the institutional features of a national government, with a presidency, an executive, a legislature, and a judiciary. However, its rule extends only in some areas of the oPt, it does not control its external borders and airspace, and it lacks sovereignty over natural resources in areas under its jurisdiction.
The President of the Palestinian Authority is elected by Palestinians living in the occupied Palestinian territory, including those living outside the jurisdiction of the Palestinian Authority, such as in occupied east Jerusalem. In an amendment to the Palestinian Authority's Basic Law in 2003, the President appoints a Prime Minister. The Prime Minister, who reports directly to the President, appoints a Cabinet of Ministers that is responsible to the Palestinian Legislative Council.
The Palestinian Legislative Council
Considered as the legislative arm of the Palestinian Authority, the Palestinian Legislative Council is responsible for passing laws, in addition to approving cabinet positions proposed by the Prime Minister and confirming the appointment of the Prime Minister upon nomination by the President. It consists of 132 members, who are elected on a multimember constituency basis for a five-year period (although elections have been held only twice, in January 1996 and in January 2006).