Refusal to license

Merck Sharp and Dohme Limited – Principi Attivi (Italian Competition Authority (ICA), Case A364, Decision n° 14388, Bulletin n° 23/2005, 15 June 2005)

This case concerned an active ingredient for antibiotics whose patents had expired in most of European markets but not in Italy. The patent holder, Merck & CO. Inc. (Merck Sharp & Dohme; hereinafter “MSD”) refused to grant a license requested by an Italian company, ACS Dobfar S.p.A.

IMS Health GmbH v NDC Health GmbH (Court of Justice of the European Union Case C-418/01, 29 April 2004)

In the IMS Health case, the Court of Justice of the European Union (hereinafter “CJEU”) clarified the ‘exceptional circumstances’ test used to determine whether a refusal to license an intellectual property right (hereinafter “IPR”) constitutes an abuse of a dominant position under Art. 102 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.

Case Summary