Landlocked Developing Countries (LLDCs)

Landlocked developing countries (LLDCs) face special trade and development challenges, arising from their lack of territorial access to the sea and geographical remoteness from international markets.

Exports and imports of LLDCs are required to transit through at least one neighboring State, and often have to change the mode of transport frequently.

This substantially increases the cost of trade for LLDCs and is a key factor in preventing their effective integration into the global trading system.

The geographical challenges of LLDCs are often compounded by weak transit-transport infrastructure, inefficient customs operations, and over-dependence on the experts of primary commodities.

Land-locked Developing Countries  

In recognition of the special development needs of LLDCs, the international community adopted the Vienna Programme of Action (VPoA) for these countries for the decade 2014-2024. The overarching goal of the VPoA is to help the LLDCs achieve sustainable and inclusive growth and to eradicate poverty.

The work of UNCTAD on LLDCs aims to contribute to the effective implementation of the priorities agreed in the Vienna Programme of Action, and to assist LLDCs in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals.

At present, 32 countries belong to the Group of landlocked developing countries (LLDCs): 16 are located in Africa, 12 in Asia, 2 in Latin America and 2 in Central and Eastern Europe (see map).



10 June 2020COVID-19: UN calls on governments to help landlocked neighbours
Flag of Bolivia
29 November 2019Escaping commodity trap critical for landlocked developing countries
04 June 2017Equatorial Guinea is the first country to leave the LDC category since the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals
22 October 2014Productive capacity, diversification needed to boost growth in Landlocked Developing Countries
Flag of Zambia
17 October 2014Zambian Minister applauds UNCTAD's work in support of Landlocked Developing Countries
Page 1 of 2, items 1 to 5 of 7


 Events and Meetings


 Documents and Publications

Page 1 of 7, items 1 to 5 of 31

Tab Control
Featured Publication
Vienna PoA 

Please wait....